Influenced by German thought, especially by Friedrich Ratzel whom he had met in Germany, Vidal has been linked to the term " possibilism ", which he never used but which summed up conveniently his opposition to the determinism of the sort that was defended by some nineteenth century geographers.
The concept of possibilism has been used by historians to evoke the epistemological fuzziness that, according to them, characterized the approach of Vidal's school. Described as " idiographic ", this approach was seen as blocking the evolution of the discipline in a " nomothetic " direction that would be the result of experimentation, making it possible to unlock laws or make scientific demonstrations.
Vidal published a visionary article on the regions of France in He had been requested by the Prime Minister, Aristide Briand , to create some regional groupings with representative organs. Vidal proposed to cut France into regions organized around a metropolis.
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The economic realities of the modern world, with worldwide competition and the shrinking of the planet due to accelerated communications, made him think that less centralized, less static modes of organization ought to be promoted. Many of the master's students, particularly in their dissertations,  produced regional geographies that were both physical and human even economic. The context chosen for these descriptions was a region, whose contours were not always very firmly fixed scientifically.
Undoubtedly because this approach was more structured, many of Vidal's successors, and still more those of Martonne, specialized in a geomorphology that became gradually stronger, but that also, by its narrowness, weakened French geography.
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Between the two world wars, "classical geography" stayed in the mold established by the Vidalian tradition. It was defended by an establishment that marginalized all attempts at epistemological renewal, to such an extent that after World War II the discipline was at the same stage where it had been left at Vidal's death. Arguably, his disciples were bound to a particular aspect of the master's thought and did not know how to deal with complexity and growth, and as a consequence the field of the discipline shrank. An immutable triad imposed itself on research and university studies: physical geography Martonne, Baulig , regional geography Blanchard, Cholley , and human geography Brunhes, Demangeon, Sorre ; in descending order of frequency and importance geomorphology, then rural geography, regional geography, and finally tropical geography.
This classical geography—naturalistic, monographic, morphological, literary, and didactic—would experience a rapid renewal and a radical transformation into a social science with the revolution of the s and s and the rise of urban and industrial studies. Some adherents to modern geography as the science of the social dimension of space have criticized Vidal's geography as the natural science of lifeways. There are lots of very good teachers who are always in a good mood and who are good fun.
They do their best to help pupils and I get on well with them.
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On the other hand, there are problems with vandalism and certain pupils don't respect the buildings. You see graffiti in certain areas. What I hate the most in my school is that there are a few pupils who prevent others from working.
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That really annoys me. At the moment I study eight subjects for my exams: two languages that is to say Italian and German, three sciences including Chemistry, Physics and Biology, English, Maths and finally PE. I decided to stop studying Spanish because in my opinion, it was too boring and furthermore the teacher was too strict. I dropped Geography because it was really difficult. At the moment, my favourite subject is still Italian because I love modern languages and I would like to spend some time in Italy one day. According to my parents, Maths is the most important subject and I need Maths for university.
I also like History, English and IT and they are very important subjects in my opinion. I hope to get good results at the end of the year in order to be able to go to University. After that, I have a wash and brush my teeth. I go to school by car as my dad takes me and we get there at quarter past eight. I hate mornings because I am lazy. Therefore I love having a lie-in at the weekend. Google Scholar ISI. Agricultural History Review 36, - Guiomar, J.
In Nora, P. La nation.
Paris : Gallimard , - Hall, P. London : Unwin Hyman. Hall, T. Stockholm : Almqvist and Wiksell. Harvey, D. London : Edward Arnold. Professional Geographer 36, 1 - Heffernan, M. Herbert, R. New Haven : Yale University Press. Hobsbawm, E. London : Verso. Hudson, P. Hufton, O. Oxford : Clarendon Press. Iliffe, J. Jones, E. Oxford : Oxford University Press. Jordan, T. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 79, - Kark, R. Kearns, G. Journal of Historical Geography 10, - Kinser, S. The geohistorical structuralism of Fernand Braudel.
American Historical Review 86, 63 - Langton, J. Geografiska Annaler 70B, 17 - Lawton, R. London : Bellhaven. Lequin, Y. Paris : Larousse. Le Bras, H.
source url Lis, C. Brighton : Harvester. Markowitz, F. Comparative Studies in Society and History 32, - Meinig, D. Mingay, G. Nord, P. Journal of Interdisciplinary History 19, - Osborne, B. Journal of Historical Geography 16, - Ritter, G.